Medieval Catalan coins: the Croats

Medieval Coins. Croat. Catalan Coins, Silver. Numismatics.

Medieval coins of Catalonia

Here is one of the most sought-after Catalan coins: the medieval Croats. The medieval croats and the banknotes issued by the Generalitat de Catalunya —the Government of Catalonia— during the Civil War —although the latter, to be more accurate, would fall into the world of note collecting known as notaphily— are the Holy Grail of Catalan numismatics. Yes, there is a great deal of interest in these pieces, and in recent years they have gone up in price at both auctions and numismatics.


The Quatern was a Catalan vellon coin created by Peter II in 1212. It was also known as Court coin. Its value was four silver marks and eight copper marks.

In 1346 Peter III the Ceremonious created a new coin: the gold Florin of Aragon , and established a mint in Perpignan for the minting of royal gold coins . It was minted imitating of those of Florence. In addition to Perpignan, it was also minted in Barcelona, Gerona, Valencia and Majorca, but never in Aragon.

The Croat was a Barcelona silver coin, minted from the time of Peter II (1177 – 1213) until Philip V (1683-1746). It was also called Barcelonese silver money, real silver money and thick white coin. Its name comes from the cross on the back. It was abolished in 1718 with the New Royal Decree .

The Counts of Barcelona gradually extended their dominion and currency throughout Catalonia.
The seca (mint) in Barcelona minted coins called Diners and Obols, which had less and less silver content.
It was in the time of James I, the Conqueror, that the stability of the numerarie was achieved. The numeraire is liquid or cash money, i.e. coins, banknotes and short-term current accounts. The numeraire also usually refers to the amount of circulating money (mainly coins and banknotes) that exists in a country at any given time.

The first attempt to make a strong silver coin struck in Barcelona dates back to 1268, but it could not be made due to the opposition of the nobles of Barcelona.

The famous Barcelona coin, called the Croat, was first struck in the first week of August 1285, and it was Peter II, the Great, son of James I, the Conqueror, who ordered it to be issued.
The birth of the Catalan Croat is associated with the period of expansion of the Catalan-Aragonese Crown.

The obverse shows the bust of the king who decided to strike the coins, always looking to the left and with a crown on his head. The reverse of the coin shows the long-armed cross, which is the origin of the old name ‘crucesigneds’ and later the Croat.

The weight of the croat was 3.23 grams of silver.

Medieval silver coins
Catalan Croats

How many grams are an ounce?

To put this in context, one ounce equals 28.35 grams.

Peter II the Great (1276-1285)

The first legal issues of croats began in the first week of August 1285, a few months before the death of Peter II the Great (who reigned from 1276 to 1285 and was the son of James I the Conqueror and Violant of Hungary). Very few examples of croats from this reign are known and therefore are extremely rare.

Peter II Croat


It is a rare croat, and the starting price at auction is 750€, easily reaching 3000€.

It must be said that there are croats that are much more affordable than those of Peter II. For example, a croat of James II (1291-1327) has a starting price of around €80 and is sold for €216 in VF, VF20 or VF25 (according tothe sheldon coin grading scale). A croat of Peter III can be obtained for little more than €80.

For those of you who are already familiar with coin collecting, you already know that the condition of the coin has a direct impact on its price. However, sometimes there are coins that are so unique that their condition takes a back seat.

Roast someone

to roast someone meaning, examples
To roast someone in other languages


to roast someone means to admonish, criticize severely or speak angrily and vigorously to someone.

Roast someone examples

You are late for work for the fourth time this week; your boss will really roast you this time.

Wow! She has roasted him in front of everybody. If she wanted to air their dirty laundry, she could’ve done it in private.

Roast someone in Bulgarian

In Bulgarian, if we want to roast someone, we should say дразня (pronounced draznja) (literally, to tease).

Roast someone in Catalan

In Catalan you can say dir el nom del porc (a algú) (literally, to tell the name of the pig (to someone)’

Rast someone in Dutch

In Dutch, the equivalent to roast is het vuur aan de schenen leggen (nl) (literally, put the fire to the shins).

Roast someone in German

In German, an equivalent expression is rüffeln (literally to ruffle).

Roast someone in French

 In French we would use the expression s’en prendre à qn (literally, to attack sb).

Roast someone in Japanese

In Japanese is 酷評する( kokuhyō suru) (literally, to criticize).

Roast someone in Russian

In Russian, a similar expression is задираться (ru) impf (pronounced zadiratʹsja) (informal) (literally, to bully), цапаться (ru) impf (pronounced capatʹsja) (informal)

Roast someone in Spanish

In Spanish (from Spain), in a colloquial way, you say echar un rapapolvo (literally, to throw a scold to someone) or poner verde a alguien (literally, to put green to somebody, although in this second meaning normally the criticized person is not present).

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Slow and steady wins the race in other languages

Slow and steady wins the race meaning, origin and translations


Slow but steady wins the race is a proverb that means slow, productive progress leads to success. Patient work will eventually overcome any problem or challenge.


Originated from one of Aesop’s Fables, The Tortoise and the Hare.

The story concerns a Hare who ridicules a slow-moving Tortoise. Tired of the Hare’s arrogant behaviour, the Tortoise challenges him to a race. The hare soon leaves the tortoise behind and, confident of winning, takes a nap midway through the race. When the Hare awakes, however, he finds that his competitor, crawling slowly but steadily, has arrived before him.

Slow and steady wins the race in Catalan

A poc a poc i bona lletra (literally, Little by little and good handwriting)

Slow and steady wins the race in Arabic

من تأنى أدرك ما تمنى (Literally, He who doesn’t rush, gets wherever he wants)

Slow and steady wins the race in Basque

Azkar heldu nahi baduk, astiro joan (Literally, If you want to get in time, go slowly)

Slow and steady wins the race in Chinese

欲速則不達 (zh) (literally, Haste is not enough), 欲速则不达 (zh) (yù sù zé bù dá), 心急吃不了熱豆腐 (zh), 心急吃不了热豆腐 (zh) (xīnjí chībuliǎo rè dòufu, literally, More haste less speed), 不怕慢,只怕站 (bù pà màn, zhǐ pà zhàn) (literally, Not afraid of slowness, just standing)

Slow and steady wins the race in Finnish

kilpikonna voittaa jäniksen (the turtle beats the hare)

Slow and steady wins the race in French

Qui trop se hâte, reste en chemin (literally, Who hurries too much, stays on the way), also Rien ne sert de courir, il faut partir à point (literally, there is no point in running, you have to leave on time)

Slow and steady wins the race in Galician

A gran présa, gran vagar (literally, In a hurry, great wandering)

Slow and steady wins the race in German

Eilen kommt spät ans Ende (literally, Hurry is in the end late)

Slow and steady wins the race in Italian

Chi va piano va sano e va lontano (literally, Who goes slowly goes far)

Slow and steady wins the race in Latin

Festinare nocet ( literally, rushing hurts)

Slow and steady wins the race in Polish

kropla drąży skałę (pl) (literally, drop drills Rock)

Slow and steady wins the race in Portuguese

Devagar e sempre (literally, Slow and always)

Slow and steady wins the race in Scottish Gaelic

Ruigidh each mall muileann (literally, A slow horse will reach a mill)

Slow and steady wins the race in Spanish

 A gran prisa, gran vagar (literally, In great haste, great wander)

This post will be updated shortly. Thank you for your visit! We hope you liked this post.

Other posts that you might like to read are:

(to) Pull one’s chestnuts out of the fire
Bend over backwards in other languages
Every cloud has a silver lining in other languages
Jeepers creepers!
Animal idioms
That’s a different kettle of fish
Most important Catalan Sayings and Proverbs translated to English
Common British English expressions
Common British English expressions II

Learn Catalan with couch Polyglot

Catalan language

Learn Catalan (1) | Slow Catalan phrases for beginners

Catalan is an important language ​​in the European Union, with more speakers than Swedish, Finnish, Danish, Greek, Czech and Hungarian. Unfortunately, it still does not have the institutional support it deserves, and in spite of the difficulties, today it is alive and kicking thanks to the people that love it. Since there is an increasing number of people all over the world who start studying this beautiful and interesting Latin language, here is a Youtube channel by Laura Homs we strongly recommend: Couch Polyglot (click here to visit the channel)

Couch Polyglots

Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees. Nineteenth-century Spain saw a Catalan literary revival,culminating in the early 1900s.

Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalan has been institutionalized as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige. In Catalonia, there is an unparalleled large bilingual European non-state linguistic community.

As the channel information reads: Welcome, Willkommen, Bienvenu, Bienvenido, benvingut, benvenuto, Добро пожаловать! This channel is all about language learning. You will find useful tips and challenges, as well as learning material for Spanish, Catalan and German. The videos are in different languages and all non-English videos include subtitles. The Spanish and Catalan videos also include a transcription so that you can read along if needed. Have fun and hope to see you around. Do you want to know more about me? You can find me on Udemy: